Access defaults to displaying all records in a table. Filters are not initially applied to the table. Filtering table records actually changes the table design. When you attempt to close a table after a filter, Access will prompt you to save the changes to the table design.
When you open the table or form later, all of the records will be visible. Click the Apply Filter button to reapply the filter. However, Access saves only the last filter you create.
You can apply filters to filtered data to further narrow your search.