In Excel complex formulas can include several operations. Use complex formulas in Excel to calculate more extensive data.

### Absolute references

Typically, when you copy a formula that uses references, Excel automatically adjusts the reference in the pasted formula to refer to different cells relative to the position of the formula.

Sometimes when you copy a formula, you don't want one of the cell references to change. Creating an **absolute reference**—a reference to a cell that does not change when copying a formula—solves this problem. An absolute reference always refers to the same cell or range. It is designated in the formula by the dollar sign (**$**).

For this exercise, delete the original formulas and start again.

#### To delete a formula:

- Select the cells in which the original formulas exist. The cells are now selected.
- Press
**Delete**. The information in these cells is deleted.

#### To create an absolute reference:

- Enter the numbers you want to calculate. Then, create a simple
**formula** (=A1+A2). - Click the cell in which you want to place the
**formula answer**. - To create an absolute reference, add a dollar sign (
**$**) in front of the **column reference** and the **row reference** (=$A$1+A2). - Press
**Enter** or click the Enter button. The answer displays in the cell. **Copy and paste** the formula to another adjacent cell. The formula now includes an absolute reference (=$A$1+C2).