# Excel 2013

## Relative and Absolute Cell References

### Introduction

There are two types of cell references:** relative** and **absolute**. Relative and absolute references behave differently when copied and filled to other cells. Relative references **change** when a formula is copied to another cell. Absolute references, on the other hand, remain **constant**, no matter where they are copied.

Optional: Download our Lesson 15 Practice Workbook.

#### Relative references

By default, all cell references are **relative references**. When copied across multiple cells, they change based on the relative position of rows and columns. For example, if you copy the formula **=A1+B1** from row 1 to row 2, the formula will become** =A2+B2. **Relative references are especially convenient whenever you need to **repeat** the same calculation across multiple rows or columns.

#### To create and copy a formula using relative references:

In the following example, we want to create a formula that will multiply each item's **price** by the **quantity**. Rather than creating a new formula for each row, we can create a single formula in cell **D2** and then copy it to the other rows. We'll use relative references so the formula correctly calculates the total for each item.

- Select the
**cell**that will contain the formula. In our example, we'll select cell**D2**.Selecting cell D2 - Enter the
**formula**to calculate the desired value. In our example, we'll type**=B2*C2**.

Entering the formula - Press
**Enter**on your keyboard. The formula will be**calculated**, and the result will be displayed in the cell. - Locate the
**fill handle**in the lower-right corner of the desired cell. In our example, we'll locate the fill handle for cell**D2**.Locating the fill handle - Click, hold, and drag the
**fill handle**over the cells you wish to fill. In our example, we'll select cells**D3:D12**.

Dragging the fill handle over cells D3:D12 - Release the mouse. The formula will be
**copied**to the selected cells with**relative****references**, and the values will be calculated in each cell.The copied formulas and calculated values

You can double-click the** filled cells** to check their formulas for accuracy. The relative cell references should be different for each cell, depending on their rows.