Learn the difference between a relative absolute cell reference in Excel and an absolute cell reference in Excel in this free lesson.
There are two types of cell references: relative and absolute. Relative and absolute references behave differently when copied and filled to other cells. Relative references change when a formula is copied to another cell. Absolute references, on the other hand, remain constant no matter where they are copied.
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Watch the video below to learn more about cell references.
By default, all cell references are relative references. When copied across multiple cells, they change based on the relative position of rows and columns. For example, if you copy the formula =A1+B1 from row 1 to row 2, the formula will become =A2+B2. Relative references are especially convenient whenever you need to repeat the same calculation across multiple rows or columns.
In the following example, we want to create a formula that will multiply each item's price by the quantity. Instead of creating a new formula for each row, we can create a single formula in cell D2 and then copy it to the other rows. We'll use relative references so the formula calculates the total for each item correctly.
You can double-click the filled cells to check their formulas for accuracy. The relative cell references should be different for each cell, depending on their rows.