In Excel XP complex formulas can include several operations. Use complex formulas in Excel to calculate more extensive data.

- Create complex formulas
- Fill a formula to another cell
- Copy and paste a formula to another cell
- Revise a formula
- Create an absolute reference

Simple formulas have one mathematical operation. **Complex formulas** involve more than one mathematical operation.

The order of mathematical operations is important. If you enter a formula that contains several operations—like adding, subtracting, and dividing—Excel XP knows to work these operations in a specific order. The order of operations is:

- Operations enclosed in parenthesis
- Exponential calculations (to the power of)
- Multiplication and division, whichever comes first
- Addition and subtraction, whichever comes first

Using this order, let us see how the formula **120/(8-5)*4-2** is calculated in the following picture:

Let's take a look at another example:

**2*(6-4) =?**

Is the answer 8 or 4? If you ignored the parentheses and calculated in the order in which the numbers appear, 2*6-4, you'd get the wrong answer, 8. You must follow the order of operations to get the correct answer.

- Calculate the operation in parenthesis (6-4), where the answer is 2.
- Multiply the answer obtained in step 1, which is 2, to the numeric 2* that opened the equation. In other words, multiply 2*2.
- The answer is 4.

When using **formulas** with cell references, the results change each time the numbers are **edited**.

In Excel, never do math in your head and type the answer in a cell where you would expect to have a formula calculate the answer.

Before moving on, let's explore some more formulas to make sure you understand the order of operations by which Excel calculates an answer.

5*3/2 | Multiply 5*3 before performing the division operation because the multiplication sign comes before the division sign. The answer is 7.5. |

5/3*2 | Divide 5/3 before performing the multiplication operation because the division sign comes before the multiplication sign. The answer is 3.333333. |

5/(3*2) | Perform the operation in parentheses (3*2) first and divide 5 by this result. The answer is 0.833333. |

5+3-2 | Add 5+3 before performing the subtraction operation because the addition sign comes before the subtraction sign. The answer is 6. |

5-2+3 | Subtract 5-2 before performing the addition operation because the subtaction sign comes before the addition sign. The answer is 6. |

5-2*3 | Multiply 2*3 before performing the subtraction operation because the multiplication sign is of a higher order than the subtraction sign. The answer is -1. |

(5-2)*3 | Perform the operation in parenthesis (5-2) first and then multiply by 3. The answer is 9. |

Excel XP automatically follows a standard order of operations in a complex formula. If you want a certain portion of the formula to be calculated first, put it in parentheses.

If we wanted to add the contents of cell B2 and cell B3, for example, then take that answer and multiply it by the data in cell A4, we would need to define the following formula: **=(B2+B3)*A4**.

- Enter the numbers you want to calculate.
- Click the cell where you want the formula
**result**to appear. - Type the equals sign (=) to let Excel know that a formula is being defined.
- Type an open parenthesis, or (.
- Click the
**first cell**to be included in the formula (cell B2, for example). - Type the
**addition sign (+)**to let Excel know that an add operation is to be performed. - Click the
**second cell**in the formula. The reference B3 displays where you want your result. - End the B2+B3 operation by adding a closed parenthesis, or ).
- Type the next mathematical operator, or the
**multiplication symbol (*)**, to let Excel know that a multiply operation is to be performed. - Click the
**third cell**to be included in the formula, cell A4. - Press
**Enter**or click the**Enter button**on the formula bar to complete the formula.

Try changing one of the values in the formula and watch the answer to the formula change.

Excel **will not always tell you** if your formula contains an error, so it's up to you to check all of your formulas. To learn how to do this, read the Double-Check Your Formulas lesson from our Excel Formulas tutorial.

Sometimes you'll write a formula that gets used various places within a worksheet. For example, a spreadsheet may contain several columns of numbers. Each column will contain a formula that adds all of the numbers in it. You could write the formula several times, once in each column, or you could copy and paste it into each column. The **fill formula** method allows you to copy a formula and fill it into many different cells at the same time.

The mouse pointer changes to a black crosshair when passed over the fill handle, or the square box in the lower-right corner of the cell.

- Click the cell that contains the formula to be copied.
- Position the mouse pointer over the fill handle.
- Click and hold the left mouse button, then drag the contents to the cell that will receive the fill formula.
- Release the mouse button.
- Select the
**Copy Cells**option in the fill formula drop-down menu.

The cell references in a formula are automatically updated when the formula is copied to other cells in the spreadsheet.

You can also **copy and paste** formulas to other cells. This is discussed on the next page.

The process to copy and paste a formula is identical to the process for copying and pasting text.

- Select the cell that contains the formula you want to copy.
- Click the
**Copy**button. Marching ants appear around the copied cell(s).

- Select the cell where the copied formula will be pasted.
- Press the
**Enter key**. The formula is copied to the new location.

You can **revise** any formula that was previously written in a worksheet.

- Double-click the cell containing the formula you want to revise.
- The cursor can now move left and right between the values in the formula in cell B5.

- Make the necessary changes to the formula.
- Press the Enter key or click the Enter button to accept the new formula.

In earlier lessons, we saw how cell references in formulas automatically adjust to new locations when the formula is pasted into different cells.

Sometimes when you copy and paste a formula, you don't want one or more cell references to change. **Absolute references** solve this problem. Absolute cell references in a formula always refer to the same cell or cell range in a formula. If a formula is copied to a different location, the absolute reference remains the same.

An absolute reference is designated in the formula by the addition of a dollar sign ($). It can precede the column reference, the row reference, or both. Examples of absolute referencing include:

$A$2 | The column and the row do not change when copied. |

A$2 | The row does not change when copied. |

$A2 | The column does not change when copied. |

- Enter the numbers you want to calculate (for example, 34,567 in cell B2 and 1,234 in cell B3).
- Create a
**simple formula**(=B2+B3).

- To create an absolute reference in the formula, insert a
**$ value**before the B (column reference) and 2 (row reference) in the reference to B2 so the new formula reads**=$B$2+B3**.

**Copy and paste**the formula to an adjacent cell. The formula now includes an absolute reference to B2: =$B$2+D3.

- Type the following information:

In cell A1, type**12345****.**

In cell A2, type**15865**.

In cell B1, type**9347**.

In cell B2, type**11942**.

In cell C1, type**19348**.

In cell C2, type**17103**. - Create the following simple formula:

In cell A3, **write a formula** to add cell A1 and cell A2.

**Fill the formula**in cell A3 to both cell B3 and cell C3.- Create the following complex formula:

In cell A5, **write a formula** that divides cell A1 by the sum of cells A3, B3, and C3.

- In the formula defined in cell A5,
**create an absolute reference**to all cells and rows referenced in the following part of the formula: sum of cells A3, B3, and C3. **Copy**the formula and absolute reference in cell A5 and**paste**it into cell B5 and cell C5.- Note how the formulas that appear in cell A5, cell B5, and cell C5 differ from one another.