In Google Sheets cell references help your formulas stay correct. Learn how to use cell references in Google Sheets here.
There may be times when you do not want a cell reference to change when copying or filling cells. You can use an absolute reference to keep a row and/or column constant in the formula.
An absolute reference is designated in the formula by the addition of a dollar sign ($). It can precede the column reference, the row reference, or both.
You will most likely use the $A$2 format when creating formulas that contain absolute references. The other two formats are used much less often.
In the example below, we're going to use cell E2 (which contains the tax rate at 7.5%) to calculate the sales tax for each item in column D. To make sure the reference to the tax rate stays constant—even when the formula is copied and filled to other cells—we'll need to make cell $E$2 an absolute reference.
You can double-click the filled cells to check their formulas for accuracy. The absolute reference should be the same for each cell, while the other references are relative to the cell's row.
Be sure to include the dollar sign ($) whenever you're making an absolute reference across multiple cells. Without the dollar sign, Google Sheets will interpret it as a relative reference, producing an incorrect result when copied to other cells.